The exercise is divided into the following phases:
- Initial position.
- The first squatting (bent standing position).
- The second squatting (sometimes may consist of two phases – airborne squatting and stationary squatting).
- Standing up.
- Hover of the weights.
- Slowing down of the weights (sometimes may consist of two phases – rolling and squatting).
- Initial position.
The initial position has several defining elements allowing to keep the weights on the chest in a relaxed state and then to fully use the energy of the working muscles for the implementation of the power force when lifting. The projection of the common center of gravity should be approximately in the middle of the support (foot) or somewhat closer to the ankle joints. The look shall be directed in a forward-up direction, the neck muscles shall be relaxed. There are two main ways to support apparatuses. 1 – on the iliac bones of the pelvis. 2- on the chest (rarely for people with a short shoulder). Let’s have a look on the classical first method.
- A) Handles of weights should lie on the palms, closer to the radiocarpal joints.
- B) The body shall be slightly leaned back, the pelvis shall be bred forward, so that the weight of weights rests on the body. The position of the athlete should be as vertical as possible.
- B) The legs are to be straight as possible. The angle of flexion of the legs depends directly on the level of the flexibility of the athlete.
- D) The angle between the shoulder and the forearm is about 45 degrees.
- E) The hand should be open, fingers bent and relaxed. It is possible to use a lock to hold weights.
2. The first squatting (bent standing position).
The bent standing position lasts from the beginning of knee flexion until the athlete stops at the lowest point. The angle of knee flexion should be as low as possible for a sufficiently effective pushing of the apparatuses upwards. Insufficient first squatting will not give the necessary effort to the muscles of the legs. In the opposite, a deep squatting will lead to a significant shift of the athlete forwards to a position in which the muscles of the legs can no longer easily use their potential, and the next phase (lifting) will be slow and stingy. It is necessary to take the most effective position for lifting. The pelvis moves smoothly down and forward. The projection of the center of gravity during the first squatting shifts slightly forward to create a powerful inertial movement of the weights support (elbows).
When performing the first squatting (bent standing position) it is necessary to adhere to the main requirement for its performing – to try not to lose contact with the apparatus, but to be one with it. For each athlete, the speed of bent standing position should be optimal so that he/she could quickly slow down and switch to lifting without delay.
Lifting starts with no stop of the athlete in the lower position.
Lifting of the weights happens with the help of the muscles of the legs and spine
Lifting begins with the support of the entire foot. The muscles of the shoulder girdle and hands do not perform dynamic work, they ensure the holding of weights on the chest. The inclusion of hands into the effort significantly reduces the force of the lifting . The decrease in the efficiency of movement occurs when the athlete stands up on the toes before the lifting. The lifting is carried out strictly upward due to the energetic extension of the legs and insignificant work of the gluteus muscles and spine withincreasing speed. By the end of the final acceleration phase, the weights reach their maximum speed. Stand up on the toes begins after the start of acceleration of weights when lifting out and gives the weights the additional acceleration and frees the athlete from the load to perform the squatting. It is important that the direction of the lifting at the moment of separation from the body is correct and allows to catch the apparatuses in the upper position without adjusting the direction with hands. Any bending of the trajectory leads to the involvement of additional muscle groups. The lifting amplitude should not be very long, but not too short. But this is only the kinematics of motion. Dynamic effort should be created only at the initial stage of lifting, then the body only follows the apparatuses. The dynamic effort itself should be as low as possible to use the potential, but allowing the weights to be lifted to a predetermined height.
4. The second squatting.
Unlike squatting, a weightlifters perform this movement in the completely resting position. At the final moment of lifting the athlete quickly and fully incorporates his/her hands into dynamic work. This allows to extinguish the vertical speed of body movement, after which the athlete quickly performs a squatting, tilting the torso forward and slightly downwards. Active interaction with weights speeds up the squatting and adjusts its direction. Due to this, the athlete’s body descends with acceleration exceeding the acceleration of gravity, and the weights rise higher and move backwards.
5. Standing up
Standing up begins immediately after the termination of lowering of the system “athlete – weights” down. However, it should be noted that there is a small pause due to the change in movement by the body parts. Standing up is carried out by moving the knee joints back. The pelvis remains stationary and rises up slightly only. Hands and body also do not change their position to maintain the perfect balance. The bend of the spine after the second squatting persists. The standing up phase ends with the fixation of the weights in the upper position.
At the time of fixation all of the body should be firmly fixed, legs, arms and torso to be straightened. It is necessary to bring athletes’ attention to the fact that the hands should be in parallel to each other. For a comfortable hold of the weights in the locked position, the athlete shall correctly distribute the balance of the body (projection of the center of gravity of the athlete), so that the weight is between the toes and the heels. Each athlete shall find the most comfortable position of the hands in the fixing position.
7. Hover of the weights.
To lower the weights on the chest, the athlete leads the head back a little, moves pelvis a little forward, unlocks the elbow joints, and then completely relaxes the arms, bending them in the elbow joints. Hands with the weights freely fall to their initial position, while the impact of the weights is depreciated in several stages. At the beginning of the hover phase, the athlete takes a breath. For a softer movement of the weights in the initial position, the athlete may stand on toes during the hover phase.
8. Slowing down of the weights.
The slowing down occurs in two phases. The first phase is the touch of the shoulder joints. The second phase is rolling on the chest, during which amortization is carried out due to exhalation and slight bending of the legs. The athlete can use another phase of slowing down by getting up on toes during the hover of the weights.
During hard work with weights, the main and necessary condition is the timely and sufficient consumption of oxygen by the body. Regardless of the rhythm of the exercise, breathing should be natural and with no delays. During the training, breathing is gradually brought to automatism in accordance with the load that the body receives. Basic rules for breathing are:
– Breathing should not stop
– Breathing changes the direction at the time of maximum stamina of the athlete
– Breathing should be as superficial as possible, try to avoid deep breaths
– During the phases where the chest opens, inhale and vice versa.